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MODALS VERBS

Modals of advice, necessity and obligation: Must y have to o has to se utilizan para expresar obligacion. Must-deber, have to-tener que. Mustn t se utiliza para prohibicion. Need-necesitar se usa solo para negativa e interrogativa. Needn t y don t have to se utilizan para expresar que no hay obligacion. Ought to, should y shouldn t se usan para dar consejos y recomendaciones.

Modals of ability: (saber o poder) Can se usa para hablar de habilidades en presente. Could se utiliza para describir habilidades en el pasado (se ve xk en la oracion pone was o were). Be able to Se utiliza en los demas tiempos verbales (be se cambia segun el tiempo verbal)

Modals of possibility and certainty: Must - (algo seguro de que es verdad) Can (algo seguro que no es verdad) Might, might not, may not may y could se usan para expresar posibilidad en presente o futuro.

Modals + perfect infinitive: Se usan para dar opiniones de hechos pasados. Must have- deber, Can t have - poder, might, may, could have- puede que, could have - podria, should have - deberia, shouldn t have arrepentimiento o critica sobre algo pasado. TODOS LLEVAN EL VERBO EN PARTICIPIO PASADO

FUTURE FORMS

Will: Will + infinitivo. Se utiliza para hacer predicciones de futuro basadas en opinion y para describir decisiones espontaneas que se toman mientras se habla.

Be going to: Am, are o is + going to  + infinitivo. Se utiliza para describir planes e intenciones y para expresar predicciones basadas en la evidencia que existe en el momento en el que se habla, evidencia.

Present Continuous:  Im Are o Is + verb -ing. Se utiliza para planes con un tiempo concreto (en la oracion aparece tomorrow, this weekend...)

Future Continuous: He,she, we, I, you +will + be +-ing. Se usa para referirse a acciones futuras que se desarrollan durante un periodo de tiempo coincidiendo con otra accion.

CONDICIONALES

First Condicional: [If/unless (if + not) +present simple] y [will + infinitivo] Ej: If Pierce Brosnan retires, I will become a postman. Uso: Hablar de hechos futuros que sean posible o probables.

Second Condicional: [If + past simple] y [Would + infinitivo] Ej: If I were rich, I would buy a helicopter Uso: Cosas supuestas, imaginarias e improbables.

Third Condicional: [If + past perfect (had + 3 columna] y [Would have + 3º columna] Ej: If you had seen us, you wouldn t have know. Uso: Para referirse a hechos del pasado, cosas que no sucedieron.

REPORTED SPEECH

Cambios: [Present Simple (am, are, is) - Past Simple (was, were)] [Present Continuous - Past Continuous] [ Past Simple - Past Perfect Simple (had + 3 columna)] [Present perfect simple (have o has + -ed o 2º columna) - Past perfect simple] [Will -Would] [Can -Could] [Must -Had to]

Cambios palabras: Here-There This-That These-Those Now-Then Next week-The following week Today-That day Tonight-That night Tomorrow-The following day Yesterday-The day before Last week-The week before.

Cambios personas: [I Me My Mind] [You You Your Yours] [He Him His His] [She Her Her Hers] [It It Its] [We us our ours] [You you your yours] [They them their theirs]

Statements: "She went to Paris las year" peter said - Peter said that she had gone to Paris the previous year.

Questions:  1)When is the party? peter asked - Peter asked when the party was 2) Have you bought a new car? peter asked -Peter asked if I had bought a new car.

Comands: 1)Eat yout soup, Peter! They mother ordened - They mother ordened Peter to eat his soup 2)Don t be silly, Mary! The teacher asked -The teacher asked Mary not to be silly.

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