Death of a Salesman-Henry Miller 1949 play: tragic hero, hamartia (birthright, Gatsby, land o fopportunity, opening of story, distorted understandings), realism (concern to offer densely populated social world, dockers,...). expressionism: stage set. Dreamlike atmosphere (memories/dreams, lights in specific spots=hallucinations=characterization). Lights. Ben (functional and symbolic, imagination, flute reinforces aspirations, personifies Willy’s dream of easy wealth. Spatial transitions (dissolves and fades). repetition of motifs function as ling unions between the action of each analepsis (flashback). Anagnorisis-climax: (value system, cheat, steal, rough with girls). Denouement: capitalist gospel “I see great things for you kids,” self-deceptive discourse. Symbols: stage set=suffocated house vs natural landscape, names, home appliances=happiness, success. Sport shoes=athletic American hero, rejection father authority and loss of faith. Stockings=what money can buy, seeds. Narrative devices: beginning of play=unsuccessful, the jungle=Darwin, naming, ling realism with speech style (Willy=schizophrenic nature, inconsistencies, deceptions. Linda=pragmatic personality, ?deception, operative image of the imperfect family. Insightful for Willy’s mental/phys decline but: Dramatic irony: evokes disagreement Willy’s obj/subj worlds (stocks, speech about Will=unexpected and?her informal discourse, funeral, no mortgage in consumerist scenario?freedom). Requiem: things?how willy thought. Jewish: lack of overt manifestations, presented as gral Ame, some critics identify two central issues of Hewish-Am lit: the family and the common man. Ame drama early 20s: occult processes of mind, realism=social issues, ordinary people, real life conditions. Symbolism=suggestions, naturalism: explores forces that shape and det human behaviour, common man. Howl (from Howl and other poems): Allen Ginsberg, 1956. Beats: emphasis on orality (poem performance?page, read in pubs, defence of marginal figure, denounce modern life, free verse, rejected: white-collar work, family system, religion, pop culture). Features Ginsberg: his poems=song or chants to awaken response to dance, breath units (poetic and meditative system, line=breath, independent as a metric whole thus syntactic structures comprised the rhythmic energy of the composition), Howl: beat manifesto, lit criticism of unbalancing effect of modern culture and Eisenhower period. Depicts: America’s spiritually emptiness, ruin caused by Moloch=greed /industrialization. Presents social reality, the limits belonging/excluded harshly marked by cult conventions. to create rhythm: anaphora (driving rhythm by rep of the same sound, can intensify the emotion of the poem, rhythm first marked by who, second Moloch, third I’m. parallelism and repetition: reiteration of ideas, words, sounds and syntactic structures=internal rhyme that replaces tyranny of end rhyme, also enlivens musicality), juxtaposition of images: incongruous images fuse=shocking, surrealist reality, allows challenge of reader rational assumption and expectations, natural/inorganic, divine/unholy, etc. allusions: third part allusions to sin, repentance, death of Jesus, reurrection. harpies, Paradise Alley, Dadaism, biblical, personal (Carl and his mother in insane asylum), parataxis: connecting clause with no conj, to string them into discourse jxtapostion, thus litany-like composition. Paronomasia: deliberately exploits confusion between similar-sounding words for humorous/rhetoric effect: El (NY trains/ Hebrew word for God), Wall (Wall Street/Wailing Wall). Tone: in crescendo due to the cumulative effect of the repetitive accusation. Increasing parataxis, where voices gain climatic pitch through a discourse below or beyond conversational levels. End: abrupt, unpunctuated=voice carrying howl has been extinguished or stopped by a sudden awakening or collapse. Style: Whitman (long line, incantatory rep, syncopated rhythms) Poe (hypnotic musicality, long-line structure inspired Ginsberg theory of the get-together body+mind through poetic composition and reading since read/writing long lines=physical and mental act, jazz: rhythmic structure especially those that required the musicians breath power to be played. Imagery: desolate, idea of estangement. images about madness, religion, mental institutions. third part reveals the Beat spirit because Ginsberg spereads the limits of the mental institution Rockland to include the whole contemporary America. Snapshots of a Daughter in Law, Adrienne Rich, 1963. structure, lang, theme aim liberation from amle-dominated patterns and traditions. free verse, divided in ten sections, each snapshot reveals a female state of mind, womens position in society, preconception, stereotypes. tytle=fragmentary construction, daughter in law existence through men. each poem of volume=photograph. Rich: postmodern issues: lang. as social construct, a structure that reveals itself male controlled as history. women writers adapt to male discourse or slinece. till now Rich writng under male influence, anger and imagery of the monstrous shaped the initial feminist consciousness of her poetry. Exploration of political and emotional concerns and the adoption of Dickinson's fragmentariness verse. Style: allusive. Simone de Beauvoir and Dickinson (concern with confinement and the power of imagination), twofold meaning lf oaded gun (creative power contained in the gun of imagination and vilonece shared by theoverall tone of the poem). Imagery: final snapshot=pictorial, downward movement of the "she" who is to come, a falling action whose sharpness represented by blade-like ending of the poem. final words=pointed instrument. "you" instead of "I": rhetorical strategy, intensifies dramatic form she employs, pron refers to the daughter-in figure but can refer to any woman that fits what the poem proposes. First stanza: woman remebering her youth and vanity, passive southern belle, dress copy=no ambition or chance to change, wedding-cake=defined by relation with husband. Stanza three: Boadice: allusion to Boudica who succesfully revolted?romans. stanza 4:Ref to Dickinson: Ahmherst (town) pantry (samll room to prepare food). Stanza 7: Allusion to Wollstonecraft. Stanza 9: smash the mold implies the following. At the beginning we find confined spaces of the domestic sphrere but the poem moves on towards the open air mobility of the final seciton. criticism in poem: women?home, portraid as restraining, irritating (tone of angels) and mentally unbalancing (coffee pot, burns). Polivocality or array of voices: by assuming the voices of other silneced women, the ling she figure in teh poem is silent, physically active but linguistically quiet. Reversion=powerful and epowering instrument for woman (stanza 9: mere talent...), it allows writers creating bladed woman who descend shapr-pointed and ready to leave the mark instead of wax-winged Icarus.