Modules 13 and 14
1 (1) material; (2) mental; (3) relational; (4) mental; (5) material; (6) relational.
2 (1a) Teach has a semantic valency of 3: it is trivalent. In 1a all the participants are
actualised. In 1b they are reduced to 2, and in 1c they are reduced to 1.(2) Bite has
a semantic valency of 2. In this example only one is actualised, the valency is
reduced to 1. (3) Purr has a valency of 1, as in this example.
3 (1) Subject- ller; (2) participant (the sum of ten pounds; (3) participant (the baby);
(4) participant (the bicycle); (5) Subject- ller.
4 Suggested participants might be: (1) a strong wind; (2) waves; (3) tide; (4) river;
6 (1) Agent; (2) Affected; (3) Agent; (4) Affected; (5) Affected.
1 (1) Yes; Most Prime Ministers age prematurely; (2) No; (3) Yes; The sky darkened;
(4) No; (5) Yes; His brow wrinkled; (6) Yes; The camera clicked; (7) Yes; The load of
sand tipped onto the road; (8) Yes; The company’s sales have doubled.
2 (1, 6 and 7) the facility to undergo the action expressed; (2) acted upon; (3) acted
upon; (4) acting Agent; (5) acting Agent.
3 (a) is transitive-causative: Sarah causes the rice to cook; (b) is transitive with an
unactualised Affected participant; (c) is anti-causative. It forms an ergative
alternation with (a); (d) cook is basically a bivalent process, but in this case its
valency is reduced to 1 (the same applies to (b); (e) is a pseudo-intransitive involving
the facility of rice to undergo cooking; (f) Do you often hear of persons being
4 All the italicised verbs are used causatively in this extract. (Wither = make x shrivel
and dry up; stale = make x stale; cloy= make x sick with sweetness; satisfy = make
x satis ed). The Affected participant is different in each case and only the rst two
refer to Cleopatra.
1 (1) Recipient; (2) Recipient; (3) Bene ciary; (4) Bene ciary; (5) Recipient.
1 1) cognition, Ph=entity; (2) perception, Ph=entity; (3) cognition, Ph=fact;
(4) affectivity, Ph=situation; (5) behavioural, Ph=entity, or rather, an event,
(6) cognition, doubt; (7) cognition, fact; (8) perception (sense of taste), Ph=entity.
2 (1) The members of the commission were not pleased by/with either of the
proposals. (2) We were amazed at/by his presence of mind. (3) The government
is alarmed at/by the dramatic increase of crime in the cities. (4) She is worried by
the fact that she seems unable to lose weight. (5) Will your wife be annoyed by the
fact that you forgot to phone?
1a(1)instantation of a type, attributive, Carrier-Attribute; (2) the same as 1; (3)
identifying, Identified-Identifier; (4)attributive, Carrier-Attribute; (5)possessive,
Possessor-Possessed; (6) circumstantial; Carrier-(intensive)-circumstance; (7)
identifying, Identi ed-Identi er; (8) identifying, Identi ed-Identi er.
1b (7) Food (Identi ed/Token) is the supreme symbol (Identi er/Value).
(8) What we call civilisation or culture (Identi ed/Value) represents only a fraction
of human history (Identi er/Token).
2 (1) e.g. exhausted, resulting; (2) e.g. safe,current; (3) e.g. risky, profitable etc,
resulting; (4) e.g. still, current; (5) free, current.
1 (1) reported directive, with to-in nitive cl., (2) reported quote, as in ‘No smoking’
or reported statement, with that-cl.; (3) reported statement, with that-cl.; (4)
reported question, with wh-cl.; (5) either a reported question (expressed by a
wh-clause) or a reported directive (expressed by a to-in nitive clause); (6) either
a reported statement (expressed by a that-clause) or a reported directive (expressed
by a to-in nitive clause); (7) reported statement or (if suitably modalised) a reported
directive, e.g. that passengers should proceed to Gate number 2; (8) reported
statement, with that-cl.
2b There could be omitted from (4) and (5) since each has a ‘presentative’ locative
Adjunct in initial position.
3 This explanation applies equally well to the instances of there omission in The Lost
Modules 20 and 21
1 (1) time (distribution); time (location); (2) manner (means); (3) contingency
(concession); (4)contingency (cause); (5) goal/destination in time; (6) contingency
(reason); (7) role (capacity); (8) matter.
2 (1) Instrument; (2) Range; (3) Range; (4) Instrument; (5) Range.
1 Except for the rst line and the last, each line of the text consists of one positive
declarative clause, with Subject-Finite structure. There are primary auxiliaries as
operators (is, are,) the modal auxiliary may, and the rest are finite lexical verbs.
They all make statements, whose purpose is to persuade the reader that software
is better than paper. Punctuation could be by semi-colon or comma. The rst line
is a PP functioning as an Adjunct and does not require punctuation. The last is an
imperative, exhorting the reader to opt for the better choice, and could be followed
by an exclamation mark.
1 (1) positive declarative; Yes; (2) exclamative; Yes; (3) and (6) imperative; No, they
introduce an illustration; (4) and (7) modalised declaratives, giving an opinion;
(5) wh-interrogative + intensi er, rhetorical question; (8) whenever is an adverb of
frequency, and does not introduce a wh-question.
2 (1) I am not going . . ./ Aren’t you going . . .? (2) Nadine’s Mum didn’t buy . . ./
Didn’t Nadine’s Mum buy...? (3) He doesn’t tell/ Doesn’t he tell...? (4) Sheila
didn’t know . . ./ Didn’t Sheila know . . .? (5) Bill didn’t take on . . ./ Didn’t Bill take
3 (1) What’s your name?; (2) What is your address? (3) Where were you born? (4)
Are you using eye drops? (5) Do your eyes smart? (6) Do you take any medicines?
(7) Do you wear spectacles/glasses? (8) How long have you been wearing them?
(9) Are you allergic to anything? (10) When did you start to have visual problems?
4 Abbreviated clauses have the same polarity as the previous utterance, and are
typically said by a partner in the conversation. Question-tags usually have reversed
polarity, and are typically said by the speaker making the previous utterance.
5 (a) wh-type; (b) Why Ellie has gone pink, i.e. is blushing; (c) No, 2 and 4 are not
answers; (d) In 2: exclamation and question tag. In 4: ellipted clause.
6 (1) Yes it does, No it doesn’t; (2) Yes, I have, No, I haven’t; (3) Yes, I will/shall,
No, I won’t/shan’t; (4) O.K. All right/Let’s; Oh no, let’s not sit down.
7 (1) isn’t it? (2) haven’t you?/have you? (3) doesn’t she? (4) will you? (5)won’t/can’t
you? (6) didn’t he?/did he? ((7) don’t they? (8) did he?
1 (1) vocative, (2) Somebody: subject-vocative; dear : endearment, vocative; you:
subject, contrastive; (3) Everybody (initial), subject-vocative, (final) vocative;
(4) vocative; (5) subject; (6) subject-vocative.
2 (1) pragmatic particle introducing a wish (optative mood); (2) 2nd person
imperative (= ‘allow’); (3) optative. Type c, suggesting a joint action, is not repre-
sented, no doubt because Gore did not win the election and so was not in a position
to invite the American people to collaborate in joint action with him.
1 (1) Yes; (2) Yes; (3) Yes; (4) No; (5) Modalised performatives are less explicit, but
yes, it counts; yes; (6) Yes; (7) No, the speaker is assuring, not promising; (8) Yes;
(9) No, it means ‘I suppose’; (10) Yes, this really was a wager. The ’ll form is
conventionally used with ‘I bet’.
1 (1) yes/no (‘polar’ is also used) interrog., query; (2) verbless clause; offer;
(3) modalised yes/ no interrog., polite request; (4) wh-interrog., rhetorical question;
(5) declarative, leading question (with marker); (6) polar interrog., exclamation; (7)
wh-interrog., rhetorical question; (8) polar interrog. as preliminary to request; (9)
declarative as leading question (with marker); (10) the same, but negative.
2 (1) any; (2) some; (3a) anything;(3b) nothing; (4) anyone/ anybody; (5) anywhere;
2 (a) Uncooperative: Yes, I would mind (without signing). Cooperative: No, I wouldn’t
mind/ Not at all (signing); (b) Yes, without explaining, or No; Yes (explaining);
(c) The butler is reacting to the pragmatic meaning of an order, and says ‘yes’ in
compliance; (d) He might say ‘Not at all, sir’.
4a(1)declarative, explicit performative; (2) negative imperative; (3) declarative,
modalised performative; (4) nominal group; (5) passive declarative; (6) modalised
polar interrog.; (7) passive declarative, performative; (8) declarative, explicit
performative of thanking (although the thanking is given beforehand!).
4b 1–5 are orders (4 and 5 are more speci cally prohibitions), 6–8 are requests, 8 is an
5 (1) Wh-interrogative, question, but also disapproval, as is clear from (8); (2) answer,
statement; (3) declarative, statement (+ aggrieved protest); (4) declarative, apology;
(5) declarative, explanation/excuse in answer to (3); (6) declarative, explanation
of (5); (7) acceptance of explanation; (8) declarative, statement + disapproval;
(9) invitation/polite order.
6 (1) reprimand; (2) request; (3) request; (4) offer; (5) permission; (6) suggestion.
8 (1) indirect request following reason for request; (2) ignoring the reason and
refusing the request; (3) and (4) further reasons for request; (5) suggestion;
(6) challenge; (7) provocation; (8) suggestion; (9) explanation; (10) order;
(11) provocation; (12) provocation; (13) warning;(14) threat;(15) threat;(16) self-
identi cation/ implied warning; (17) request; (18) apology; (19) excuse.
1 (1) Paul, unmarked; (2) Abruptly, marked, Adjunct; (3) Is he, unmarked;
(4) Celebrating her victory today, marked, non-finite Predicator + operator is;
(5) freezing cold, marked, Subject Complement; (6) meet, unmarked; (7) In the
American soft-drink industry, marked, Adjunct; (8) For months, marked, Adjunct;
(9) crazy, marked, object complement; (10) Never again, marked, negative Adjunct.
2 (1) all of these I bought him; (2) fun you call it; (3) most of it we already knew;
(4) Government spokesman he is; (5) get there I did.
3 (1) The two topic entities in the paragraph are Mrs Mooney and Mr Mooney. Mrs
Mooney is introduced as primary topic referent at subject in an intransitive (copular)
clause. Mr Mooney is rst introduced as ‘her father’s foreman’, as object of the verb
marry. He is later identi ed as Mr Mooney, as subject of an intransitive verb go (to
the devil). The topical referent chains are maintained mainly by means of anaphoric
reference realised by personal pronouns. One chain is initiated by Mrs Mooney, and
continues with she ...herself ...she . . . (zero). Another chain is initiated by Mr
Mooney and continues with he . . . (zero)...him ...he. In the last four lines the two
topic referents appear together with Mr Mooney as primary topic referent, at
subject, and Mrs Mooney as second topic referent at object (he ...his wife). The
last line has both of them together (they) as subject. That refers to the events related
in the previous sentence One night he went for his wife, etc. until the end of the
2 (1) SAY; KNOW; HEAR; ANYthing; TOLD; ROOM; CARE; DO; TALK; ALways;
(2) marked focuses are CARE, DO and ALways.
4 The intonation nuclei could be assigned as follows: EGG; YOU; YOU; YOU’RE; I;
NO; ARE; COOKing; yourSELF; THAT; I’LL; I’LL; DO; NO; DON’T; YOU; EAT.
5 (1) can; (2) have/’ve done so; or did/did so; (3) haven’t/haven’t done so;
(4) would/would like to; (5) how/how to; (6) didn’t/didn’t want to; (7) did/did so;
(8) so/it was.
1 The thematic progression type between 1, 2 and 3 is Type 2, constant theme
(Vincent van Gogh – (zero) – he, with the subject in 2 being implicit. Between 3 and
4 we have Type 1, simple linear (his mother’s keeping – his mother). Between
clauses 4, 5 and 6 the progression type is constant theme (his mother – she – she).
From 6 to 7 we have Type 1, simple linear, (with a family friend – the friend) and from
7 to 8 constant theme with zero anaphora after and.
2 (1) It is on the recycling of plastic that experts are working; The ones who are
working on . . . are experts; What experts are working on is . . .; (2) It is fatal diseases
that smoking can cause; what smoking can cause are fatal diseases; what can cause
fatal diseases is smoking; (3) It’s by reading and listening to the radio that I unwind
last thing at night; how I unwind...is...; when I unwind by reading...is...; (4)
It’s against viruses that the computer industry is ghting; it’s the computer industry
that is fighting . . .; what the computer industry is fighting against are viruses;
(5) It was shortly after I got home that I realised that . . .; what I realised shortly
after I got home was that . . .; when I realised that I had lost my purse was...
3 (1) Sentence 5; then. (2) Its discourse function is to signal an upcoming shift in the
4 (1) a + c; (2) a + c; or a + b, as Edith is higher on the empathy hierachy, and so a
better topic, than the cake; (3) a + c; (4) a + b.
5a Suggested preferences for active and passive: (1) passive, because the rst kinder-
garten in the United States announces the main topical referent, whereas they refers
to people in general; (2) either: active makes for topic continuity with 1, while
passive achieves topic continuity with 3; (3) better active; (4) active effectively gets
the unthinkable in apposition with its explanation, while passive would separate
these; (5) either is possible, but when the passive does not ful l a speci c purpose,
it is wise to opt for the simpler active form; (6) the passive effectively brings the
choices in topic continuity with the dilemma, leaving budget in nal position, where
(7) active maintains topic continuity with budget.