Answer key 4,5,6

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Modules 13 and 14

1 (1) material; (2) mental; (3) relational; (4) mental; (5) material; (6) relational.

2 (1a) Teach has a semantic valency of 3: it is trivalent. In 1a all the participants are

actualised. In 1b they are reduced to 2, and in 1c they are reduced to 1.(2) Bite has

a semantic valency of 2. In this example only one is actualised, the valency is

reduced to 1. (3) Purr has a valency of 1, as in this example.

3 (1) Subject- ller; (2) participant (the sum of ten pounds; (3) participant (the baby);

(4) participant (the bicycle); (5) Subject- ller.

4 Suggested participants might be: (1) a strong wind; (2) waves; (3) tide; (4) river;

(5) landslide.

6 (1) Agent; (2) Affected; (3) Agent; (4) Affected; (5) Affected.

Module 15

1 (1) Yes; Most Prime Ministers age prematurely; (2) No; (3) Yes; The sky darkened;

(4) No; (5) Yes; His brow wrinkled; (6) Yes; The camera clicked; (7) Yes; The load of

sand tipped onto the road; (8) Yes; The company’s sales have doubled.

2 (1, 6 and 7) the facility to undergo the action expressed; (2) acted upon; (3) acted

upon; (4) acting Agent; (5) acting Agent.

3 (a) is transitive-causative: Sarah causes the rice to cook; (b) is transitive with an

unactualised Affected participant; (c) is anti-causative. It forms an ergative

alternation with (a); (d) cook is basically a bivalent process, but in this case its

valency is reduced to 1 (the same applies to (b); (e) is a pseudo-intransitive involving

the facility of rice to undergo cooking; (f) Do you often hear of persons being


4 All the italicised verbs are used causatively in this extract. (Wither = make x shrivel

and dry up; stale = make x stale; cloy= make x sick with sweetness; satisfy = make

x satis ed). The Affected participant is different in each case and only the  rst two

refer to Cleopatra.

Module 16

1 (1) Recipient; (2) Recipient; (3) Bene ciary; (4) Bene ciary; (5) Recipient.

Module 17

1 1) cognition, Ph=entity; (2) perception, Ph=entity; (3) cognition, Ph=fact;

(4) affectivity, Ph=situation; (5) behavioural, Ph=entity, or rather, an event,

(6) cognition, doubt; (7) cognition, fact; (8) perception (sense of taste), Ph=entity.

2 (1) The members of the commission were not pleased by/with either of the

proposals. (2) We were amazed at/by his presence of mind. (3) The government

is alarmed at/by the dramatic increase of crime in the cities. (4) She is worried by

the fact that she seems unable to lose weight. (5) Will your wife be annoyed by the

fact that you forgot to phone?

Module 18

1a(1)instantation of a type, attributive, Carrier-Attribute; (2) the same as 1; (3)

identifying, Identified-Identifier; (4)attributive, Carrier-Attribute; (5)possessive,

Possessor-Possessed; (6) circumstantial; Carrier-(intensive)-circumstance; (7)

identifying, Identi ed-Identi er; (8) identifying, Identi ed-Identi er.

1b (7) Food (Identi ed/Token) is the supreme symbol (Identi er/Value).

(8) What we call civilisation or culture (Identi ed/Value) represents only a fraction

of human history (Identi er/Token).

2 (1) e.g. exhausted, resulting; (2) e.g. safe,current; (3) e.g. risky, profitable etc,

resulting; (4) e.g. still, current; (5) free, current.

Module 19

1 (1) reported directive, with to-in nitive cl., (2) reported quote, as in ‘No smoking’

or reported statement, with that-cl.; (3) reported statement, with that-cl.; (4)

reported question, with wh-cl.; (5) either a reported question (expressed by a

wh-clause) or a reported directive (expressed by a to-in nitive clause); (6) either

a reported statement (expressed by a that-clause) or a reported directive (expressed

by a to-in nitive clause); (7) reported statement or (if suitably modalised) a reported

directive, e.g. that passengers should proceed to Gate number 2; (8) reported

statement, with that-cl.

2b There could be omitted from (4) and (5) since each has a ‘presentative’ locative

Adjunct in initial position.

3 This explanation applies equally well to the instances of there omission in The Lost


Modules 20 and 21

1 (1) time (distribution); time (location); (2) manner (means); (3) contingency

(concession); (4)contingency (cause); (5) goal/destination in time; (6) contingency

(reason); (7) role (capacity); (8) matter.

2 (1) Instrument; (2) Range; (3) Range; (4) Instrument; (5) Range.


Module 22

1 Except for the  rst line and the last, each line of the text consists of one positive

declarative clause, with Subject-Finite structure. There are primary auxiliaries as

operators (is, are,) the modal auxiliary may, and the rest are finite lexical verbs.

They all make statements, whose purpose is to persuade the reader that software

is better than paper. Punctuation could be by semi-colon or comma. The  rst line

is a PP functioning as an Adjunct and does not require punctuation. The last is an

imperative, exhorting the reader to opt for the better choice, and could be followed

by an exclamation mark.

Module 23

1 (1) positive declarative; Yes; (2) exclamative; Yes; (3) and (6) imperative; No, they

introduce an illustration; (4) and (7) modalised declaratives, giving an opinion;

(5) wh-interrogative + intensi er, rhetorical question; (8) whenever is an adverb of

frequency, and does not introduce a wh-question.

2 (1) I am not going . . ./ Aren’t you going . . .? (2) Nadine’s Mum didn’t buy . . ./

Didn’t Nadine’s Mum buy...? (3) He doesn’t tell/ Doesn’t he tell...? (4) Sheila

didn’t know . . ./ Didn’t Sheila know . . .? (5) Bill didn’t take on . . ./ Didn’t Bill take


3 (1) What’s your name?; (2) What is your address? (3) Where were you born? (4)

Are you using eye drops? (5) Do your eyes smart? (6) Do you take any medicines?

(7) Do you wear spectacles/glasses? (8) How long have you been wearing them?

(9) Are you allergic to anything? (10) When did you start to have visual problems?

4 Abbreviated clauses have the same polarity as the previous utterance, and are

typically said by a partner in the conversation. Question-tags usually have reversed

polarity, and are typically said by the speaker making the previous utterance.

5 (a) wh-type; (b) Why Ellie has gone pink, i.e. is blushing; (c) No, 2 and 4 are not

answers; (d) In 2: exclamation and question tag. In 4: ellipted clause.

6 (1) Yes it does, No it doesn’t; (2) Yes, I have, No, I haven’t; (3) Yes, I will/shall,

No, I won’t/shan’t; (4) O.K. All right/Let’s; Oh no, let’s not sit down.

7 (1) isn’t it? (2) haven’t you?/have you? (3) doesn’t she? (4) will you? (5)won’t/can’t

you? (6) didn’t he?/did he? ((7) don’t they? (8) did he?

Module 24

1 (1) vocative, (2) Somebody: subject-vocative; dear : endearment, vocative; you:

subject, contrastive; (3) Everybody (initial), subject-vocative, (final) vocative;

(4) vocative; (5) subject; (6) subject-vocative.

2 (1) pragmatic particle introducing a wish (optative mood); (2) 2nd person

imperative (= ‘allow’); (3) optative. Type c, suggesting a joint action, is not repre-

sented, no doubt because Gore did not win the election and so was not in a position

to invite the American people to collaborate in joint action with him.

Module 25

1 (1) Yes; (2) Yes; (3) Yes; (4) No; (5) Modalised performatives are less explicit, but

yes, it counts; yes; (6) Yes; (7) No, the speaker is assuring, not promising; (8) Yes;

(9) No, it means ‘I suppose’; (10) Yes, this really was a wager. The ’ll form is

conventionally used with ‘I bet’.

Module 26

1 (1) yes/no (‘polar’ is also used) interrog., query; (2) verbless clause; offer;

(3) modalised yes/ no interrog., polite request; (4) wh-interrog., rhetorical question;

(5) declarative, leading question (with marker); (6) polar interrog., exclamation; (7)

wh-interrog., rhetorical question; (8) polar interrog. as preliminary to request; (9)

declarative as leading question (with marker); (10) the same, but negative.

2 (1) any; (2) some; (3a) anything;(3b) nothing; (4) anyone/ anybody; (5) anywhere;

(6) some.

Module 27

2 (a) Uncooperative: Yes, I would mind (without signing). Cooperative: No, I wouldn’t

mind/ Not at all (signing); (b) Yes, without explaining, or No; Yes (explaining);

(c) The butler is reacting to the pragmatic meaning of an order, and says ‘yes’ in

compliance; (d) He might say ‘Not at all, sir’.

4a(1)declarative, explicit performative; (2) negative imperative; (3) declarative,

modalised performative; (4) nominal group; (5) passive declarative; (6) modalised

polar interrog.; (7) passive declarative, performative; (8) declarative, explicit

performative of thanking (although the thanking is given beforehand!).

4b 1–5 are orders (4 and 5 are more speci cally prohibitions), 6–8 are requests, 8 is an

indirect request.

5 (1) Wh-interrogative, question, but also disapproval, as is clear from (8); (2) answer,

statement; (3) declarative, statement (+ aggrieved protest); (4) declarative, apology;

(5) declarative, explanation/excuse in answer to (3); (6) declarative, explanation

of (5); (7) acceptance of explanation; (8) declarative, statement + disapproval;

(9) invitation/polite order.

6 (1) reprimand; (2) request; (3) request; (4) offer; (5) permission; (6) suggestion.

8 (1) indirect request following reason for request; (2) ignoring the reason and

refusing the request; (3) and (4) further reasons for request; (5) suggestion;

(6) challenge; (7) provocation; (8) suggestion; (9) explanation; (10) order;

(11) provocation; (12) provocation; (13) warning;(14) threat;(15) threat;(16) self-

identi cation/ implied warning; (17) request; (18) apology; (19) excuse.


Module 28

1 (1) Paul, unmarked; (2) Abruptly, marked, Adjunct; (3) Is he, unmarked;

(4) Celebrating her victory today, marked, non-finite Predicator + operator is;

(5) freezing cold, marked, Subject Complement; (6) meet, unmarked; (7) In the

American soft-drink industry, marked, Adjunct; (8) For months, marked, Adjunct;

(9) crazy, marked, object complement; (10) Never again, marked, negative Adjunct.

2 (1) all of these I bought him; (2) fun you call it; (3) most of it we already knew;

(4) Government spokesman he is; (5) get there I did.

3 (1) The two topic entities in the paragraph are Mrs Mooney and Mr Mooney. Mrs

Mooney is introduced as primary topic referent at subject in an intransitive (copular)

clause. Mr Mooney is  rst introduced as ‘her father’s foreman’, as object of the verb

marry. He is later identi ed as Mr Mooney, as subject of an intransitive verb go (to

the devil). The topical referent chains are maintained mainly by means of anaphoric

reference realised by personal pronouns. One chain is initiated by Mrs Mooney, and

continues with she ...herself ...she . . . (zero). Another chain is initiated by Mr

Mooney and continues with he . . . (zero)...him ...he. In the last four lines the two

topic referents appear together with Mr Mooney as primary topic referent, at

subject, and Mrs Mooney as second topic referent at object (he ...his wife). The

last line has both of them together (they) as subject. That refers to the events related

in the previous sentence One night he went for his wife, etc. until the end of the


Module 29

2 (1) SAY; KNOW; HEAR; ANYthing; TOLD; ROOM; CARE; DO; TALK; ALways;

(2) marked focuses are CARE, DO and ALways.

4 The intonation nuclei could be assigned as follows: EGG; YOU; YOU; YOU’RE; I;


5 (1) can; (2) have/’ve done so; or did/did so; (3) haven’t/haven’t done so;

(4) would/would like to; (5) how/how to; (6) didn’t/didn’t want to; (7) did/did so;

(8) so/it was.

Module 30

1 The thematic progression type between 1, 2 and 3 is Type 2, constant theme

(Vincent van Gogh – (zero) – he, with the subject in 2 being implicit. Between 3 and

4 we have Type 1, simple linear (his mother’s keeping – his mother). Between

clauses 4, 5 and 6 the progression type is constant theme (his mother – she – she).

From 6 to 7 we have Type 1, simple linear, (with a family friend – the friend) and from

7 to 8 constant theme with zero anaphora after and.

2 (1) It is on the recycling of plastic that experts are working; The ones who are

working on . . . are experts; What experts are working on is . . .; (2) It is fatal diseases

that smoking can cause; what smoking can cause are fatal diseases; what can cause

fatal diseases is smoking; (3) It’s by reading and listening to the radio that I unwind

last thing at night; how I; when I unwind by; (4)

It’s against viruses that the computer industry is  ghting; it’s the computer industry

that is fighting . . .; what the computer industry is fighting against are viruses;

(5) It was shortly after I got home that I realised that . . .; what I realised shortly

after I got home was that . . .; when I realised that I had lost my purse was...

3 (1) Sentence 5; then. (2) Its discourse function is to signal an upcoming shift in the


4 (1) a + c; (2) a + c; or a + b, as Edith is higher on the empathy hierachy, and so a

better topic, than the cake; (3) a + c; (4) a + b.

5a Suggested preferences for active and passive: (1) passive, because the  rst kinder-

garten in the United States announces the main topical referent, whereas they refers

to people in general; (2) either: active makes for topic continuity with 1, while

passive achieves topic continuity with 3; (3) better active; (4) active effectively gets

the unthinkable in apposition with its explanation, while passive would separate

these; (5) either is possible, but when the passive does not ful l a speci c purpose,

it is wise to opt for the simpler active form; (6) the passive effectively brings the

choices in topic continuity with the dilemma, leaving budget in  nal position, where

(7) active maintains topic continuity with budget.

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