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teaching receptive skills: are the ways in which people extract meaning from the discourse they see or hear. how we read and listen: we employ our previous knowledge as we approach the process of comprehension. what we bring to the task: we need a pre-existing knowledge (also colled schema), because who did not have pre-existing knowledge, would find the reading and comprehension task difficult and work the double to understandwhat they see or hear. in the schema we include genre, topic and the use of specific language features to help them to make sense of what they are hearing. reasons for reading and listening: instrumental: it will help us to archieve some clear aim or have some kind of utilitarian purpose in mind; pleasurable: for pleasure. top-down and bottom-up: it has been said that in top-down processing the reader or listener gets a general view of the reading or listening passage by, in bottom-up the reader or listener focuses on individual words and phrases. different skills: identifying the topic: good readers and listeners are able to pick up the topic of a written or spoken text very quickly; predicting and guessing: readers and listeners sometimes guess in order to try and understand what is being written or spoken; reading and listening for general understanding: readers and listeners are able to take in stream of discourse and understand the gist not worrying too much about the details (skimming: running your eyes over a text to get a quick idea of a text). for specific information: we go to listening and reading because we want specific details. this skill frecuently referred to as scanning. for detailed information: for written instructions, directions or descriptions. interpreting text: are able to see beyond the literal meaning of words in a passage using clues to understand what is implying. problems and solutions: language: st don´t know the meaning of words, they have to recognise a high proportion of the vocabulary. pre-teaching vocabulary: give st authentic reading and listening for general understanding and give some difficult words. extensive reading and listening: intensive reading or listening tends to be more concentrated, less relaxed, extensive reading take place when st are on their own. the objective are improve their overall comprehension skills and give them an active vocabulary. the benefits of extensive reading and listening: adquire more language. authenticity: authentic material where no concessions are made to foreign speakers. topic and genre: st are not familiar with the genre they are dealing with. to resolve we need to think about how we choose and use topics. choose the right topics: we should try and choose topics which our st will be interested in. create interest: we can get students engaged by talking about the topic, by showing a picture for prediction. activate schemata: we want to activate their knowledge before they read or listen. vary topics and genres: different text types. comprehension tasks: in order to resolve these problems we need to use comprehension tasks which promote understanding. testing and teaching: the best kindsof tasks are those which raise sts' expectations. their purpose is obviously to explore student strengths and weaknesses.appropiate challenge: to make the tasks difficult but achievable. negative expectations: st have low expectations of reading and listening. they can feel that they are not going to understand the book. it will be our job to persuade them. manufacturing success: we can ensure that st are successful by giving st a clear purpose; agreeing on a purpose: it's important for teacher and st to agree on both general and specific purposes for their reading or listening. extensinve and intensive reading: a teacher encourages st to choose for themselves what they read and to do so for pleasure and general language improvement. extensive reading materials: st should be reading material which they can understand, we need to provide books which either by chance or because they have been specially written.setting up a library: we need to build up a library of suitable books. manufacturing success: we can ensure that st are successful by giving st a clear purpose; agreeing on a purpose: it's important for teacher and st to agree on both general and specific purposes for their reading or listening. extensinve and intensive reading: a teacher encourages st to choose for themselves what they read and to do so for pleasure and general language improvement. extensive reading materials: st should be reading material which they can understand, we need to provide books which either by chance or because they have been specially written . setting up a library: we need to build up a library of suitable books. the role of the teacher in extensive reading programmes: we need to promote reading and by our own espousal of reading as a valid occupation, persuade st of its benefits. we can read aloud, we can organise reading programmes. extensive reading tasks: we should encourage them to report back on their reading in a number of ways.    

intensive reading: the roles of the teacher: organiser: need to tell st exactly what their reading purpose is; observer: when we ask st to read on their own we need to give them space to do so; feedback organiser: when our st have completed the task, we can lead a feedback session to check that they have completed the task successfully.prompter: we can prompt them to notice language features in that text. intensive reading: the vocabulary question: st are desesperate to know each individual word means. time limit: we can give a time limit; word/phrase limit: we can say that we will only answer about 5 or 8 words; meaning consensus: we can get st to work together to search for ans find word meanings. reading lesson sequences: we may want to have st practise specific skills such as reading to extract specific info. we may get st to read texts for communicative purposes, reading aloud. extensive and intensive listening:  extensive listening: will usually take place outside the classroom,with the motivational power the st make their own choices about what they are going to listen. intensive listening: using taped material: advantages: allows st to hear a variety of different voices, it gives them to meet a range of different characters, extremely portable. disadvantages: in big classrooms poor acoustics, everyone has to listen at the same speed. intensive listening: live listening: where the teacher and visitors to the class talk to the students. reading aloud: the teacher reading aloud to the class; story-telling: teacher are ideally placed to tell stories ehich provide excellent listening material; interviews: st really listen for answers they themselves have asked for rather than adopting other people's questions; conversations: st then have the chance to watch the interaction as well as listen to it. intensive listening: the role of the teacher: organiser: we need to tell st exactly what their listening purpose is; machine operator: we use tape or disk material we need to be as efficient as possible in the way we use the tape player. feedback organiser: when our st have completed the task, its important to be supportive when organising feedback; prompter: when st have listened to the tape or disk for comprehension purposes. listening lesson sequences: listening can occur at a number of points in a teaching sequence, we need to be flexible in what we do, we should aim to use listening material for as many purposes as possible. the sound of music: is a powerful stimulus for st engagement precisely because it speaks directly to our emotions, to have st bring their own favourite songs to class, explaining phrases they didn't understand, give lyrics with blanks. teaching productive skills: structuring discourse: coherent writing makes sense you can follow the sequence of ideas and points. cohesion is more technical. following the rules: sociocultural rules: language can use, how loud can speak; turn-taking: decision have to be taken about when each person should speak; rules for writing: writing has rules too, we need to recognise and follow. different styles, different genres: writer or speaker will operate at a different level of formality. interacting with an audience: when we speak in a formal way, we are likely to adapt the way they are speaking and the words they are using. dealing with difficulty: improvising: speakers sometimes try any word and can come up; discarding: speakers simply cannot find words for what they want to say; foreignising: speakers sometimes choose a word and foreignise; paraphrasing: speakers sometimes paraphrase nstead to say just only word. productive skills in the classroom: means that st should use all and any language at their disposal to achieve a communicative purpose. reception and production: output ans input: when a st produces a piece of language, that info is fed back into the acquisition process, teacher can provide feedback too during the writing process; texts as models: analyse their structure ans style; texts as stimuli: a lot of language work grows out of texts that st see or hear; reception as part of production; production enables reception: productive skill work is a way of helping st with thei receptive skills. problems and solutions: we need to match the tasks, we need to ensure that there is a purpose to the task, remember that st who aren't used to speaking or writing, ned to cultivate such habits. language: supply key language: we may check their knowledge of key vocabulary and help with phrases or questions; plan activities in advance: we need to plan production activities that will provoke the use of language. topic and genre: it helps if we know what we are talking about. choose interesting topics: one way of doing this is to use our instinct; create interest in the topic: we can create interest by talking about the topic; activate shemata: we should give them time to do things such as discuss; vary topics and genre: its important to vary the topics we offer; provide necessary info: we cannot expect them to role-play if they do not know who they are.