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linkers of contrast: -althhought/thought+sujeto+verbo(aunque) -despite the fact that/ in spite the fact that +sujeto+verb( a pesar del hecho de que). -despite/ in spite of +ing/+pronombre/+nombre (a pesar de). 2 linkers de proposicion: -to/ in order to/ so as(not) to + 1 columna( para).- so /so that+ sujeto+verbo( para)----> palabras clave(can/can't/could/will/won't/wouldn't) 3- linkers of reason: -as/ because/since+sujeto+verb (porque). -because of+nombre/sintagma nominal/ing (debida a ). 4 linkers de consecuencia: - so+ adjetiu+ that+sujeto+ verbo (tan---que). -such+ a/an + adjetiu+nombresingular+adjetiu+verbo. (tan/tal). such+adjetiu+ nombre plural+that+sujeto+verbo. Reported speech: 1-directo:presente simple indirecto: past simple. 2-directo: present simple/ indirecto: past continuos.3-directo: present perfect simple/ indirecto: past perfect simple. 4-directo: past simple/indirecto: past perfect simple. 5-directo:must/ indirecto: had to. 6- here-->theer. 7-this--->that 8-now--->then 9-next week--->the following week 10-today--->that day 11-tonight--->that nigth 12-tomorrow--->the following day 13-yesterday--->the day before 14-last week--->the week before. ejemplos: directo: i am witness indirecto: he said that he was a witness. 1-(apologized+for+ing.) 2-(ask, advise(aconseguir), invite, order, remind, tell, encourage(animar),persuade, warn(avisar))+objeto+infinitivo con to. (said+to+me)(told+me). Imperativos: directo: the teacher told: close the door¡¡. indirecto: the teacher told to close the door/ the teacher told not to close the door. Pregunta sin pronombre interrogativo: D:do you like chocolate? she asked. I: she asked if I liked chocolate. Pregunta con pronombre interrogativo: D:what are you reading? she asked. I: she asked what I was reading

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