If/Unless + persona + present simple + persona + future simple/modal(can,may,etc)/present tense/imperative
Ej: If i can get a ticket, i will come to the match
Second Condicional (imporabble e imaginaria)
If + persona + past simple + persona + modal (would,could,might,etc) + main verb in base form
Ej: If you moved away, you would miss Barcelona
Ej2: Consejos: I wouldn't do that if i were you
Third Condicional (imposible)
if + persona + past perfect + persona + modal (could,would,etc)+have + past participle of main verb
Ej: If you had told us, we would have helped you
whether: se utiliza como if, para eleccion entre dos cosas
unless (si es negativo), se sustituye por if
even if: para enfatizar
as long as, providing/provided (that): si se cumple la condicion de que...o siempre y cuando....
Subjuntivo con wish/if only
Presente: Wish/if only + persona + past simple (I wish he were here)
Pasado: Wisht/if only+persona+past perfect (if only he had been here)
Futuro: wish/if only + persona + would/could + infinitive (I wish he could be here tomorrow)
Gerundio: admit, avoid, consider, deny, destest, enjoy, finish, imagine, mind, miss, practise, resist, suggest.
Infinitivo: afford, agree, appear, ask, beg, care, claim, decide, demand, expect, fail, hope, learn, manage, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, want.
Modales: conjeturas (could,may,might--may have,might have,could have + participio) oblicacion (must,have to--had to) ausencia de obligacion o de necesidad (dont have to, needn't---didnt have to, didnt need to, hadnt got to) prohibicion (cant,musnt,may not--couldnt,musnt) consejo (must,should,ought to,had better---should have, oguht to have + participio pasado) habilidad y conocimiento (can, be able to---could, was, were be able to) posibilidad y permiso (can, could, be able to---can, could, was, were, able to)
ESTILO INDIRECTO (Reported Speech)
Presente simple -> Past simple (drink->drank)
Present Continuous -> Past continuous (are reading -> were reading)
Past Simple -> Past perfect (arrived -> had arrived)
Present Perfect -> Past perfect (have seen -> had seen)
Will -> Would (will visit -> would visit)
Can -> Could ........... May -> Might
I/me/my/mine;you/your/yours;we/us/our/ours -> he/him/his;she,her,hers;they,their,theirs
This/these -> that/those ...................... Now -> Then
Today/Yesterday/tomorrow -> that day/the day before/the next day
next/last -> the following/the previous
ago -> before ............ here -> there
Tipos de oraciones
Aseveraciones:- reporting verb + (that) - reporting verb + objeto + (that) - reporting verb + (not) to + infinitivo - reporting verb + objeto + (not) to + infinitivo Ordenes peticiones: - reporting verb + objeto + (not) to + infinitivo - reporting verb + (that) + sujeto + forma base del verbo Preguntas: - reporting verb + wh- + sujeto + verbo
Sugerencias:- reporting verb+ing - reporting verb + (that) + sujeto + forma base del verbo
Verbos para el estilo indirecto:
+ to + infinitive: advise, agree, encourage, invite, offer, persuade, promise, remind, warn.
+ ing: admit, advise, apologize for, recommend.
+ (that) + clause: accept, admit, agree, insist, persuade, promise,recommend,remind,warn.
La voz pasiva:
Present simple -> suj + am/is/are + participio (ed)
Past simple -> suj + was/were + participio (ed)
Will -> suj + will be + participio (ed)
Could/Should -> suje + could/should be + participio (ed)
Present Continuous -> suj + am/is/are being + participio (ed)
Past Continuous -> suj + was/were being + participio (ed)
Present Perfect -> suj + has/have been + participio (ed)
Past Perfect -> suj + had been + participio (ed)
Modal Perfect -> suj + modal have been + participio (ed)