An action-oriented approach The approach adopted by the Common European Framework is an action-oriented one in so far as it views users and learners of a language primarily as social agents, i.E. Members of society.
Language use comprises the actions performed by persons who as individuals and as social agents develop a range of competences. Competences can be subdivided in general competences, and communicative language competences.
The general competences of an individual The general competences of language learners or users consist in particular of their knowledge, skills and existential competence and also their ability to learn:
·Declarative knowledge (savoir), is understood as knowledge resulting from experience and from more formal learning: oKnowledge of the world oSociocultural knowledge oIntercultural knowledge ·Skills and know-how (savoir-faire) depend more on the ability to carry out procedures than on declarative knowledge. ·Existential competence (savoir-être) may be considered as the sum of the individual characteristics, personality traits and attitudes which concern, for example, self-image and ones view of others and willingness to engage with other people in social interaction. ·Ability to learn (savoir apprendre) mobilises existential competence, declarative knowledge and skills, and draws on various types of competence.
Communicative language competence
Communicative language competence can be considered as comprising several components: linguistics, sociolinguistics and pragmatic. Linguistics competences include lexical, phonological, syntactical knowledge and skills and other dimensions of language as system. Sociolinguistic competences refer to the sociocultural conditions of language use. Pragmatic competences are concerned with the functional use of linguistic resources, drawing on scenarios or scripts of interactional exchanges.